Track 1. Atmospheric Sciences, Meteorology, Climatology, Oceanography
Catherine KUZUCUOGLUAssociate Editor, Mediterranean Geosciences Reviews (Springer)
Research Director Emeritus
CNRS, Laboratoire de Géographie Physique
UMR 8591, Meudon, France
HUMAN SOCIETIES FACING RAPID CLIMATIC CHANGES IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN: DESINTENGLING CLIMATIC CONTROL AND HUMAN ADAPTED/UNADAPTED RESPONSES
Together with increasing evidence of global climate change on earth in the 1950s to 1970s, three to two decades still passed before the word “collapse” started invading the scientific literature. From then on, hundreds of papers studied the timing of societal collapses through the Mediterranean realm and in other parts of the world, with increasingly refined chronologies produced both in climate and archaeological sciences. As a result, interest in the relationships between climate, environment, and human societies during the Holocene, is rapidly increasing, with detailed reconstructions of relationships, in natures and processes, during time slices adapted to “crisis periods” (thought as short periods). Such episodes are now well known worldwide through space, time, and society. Examples presented concern the Eastern Mediterranean Region, from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia to northern Syria and Anatolia. These will allow discussing (1) capabilities to adapt to challenging environmental situations due to climate change, (2) forms that have taken these adaptations (e.g., population mobilities vs concentrations; technology advances; new resources), and (3) how economic specialization and political/social constraints have also intervened. Examples will cover a wide timing range through the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean:
1) From mobile to sedentary ways of life
2) Exploitation intensity of resources (economic specialization, specific lifestyles, technics)
3) Contrasting social (even/uneven distribution of resources)
4) Technical complexity of exploitation/production/distribution systems
These examples show that beyond crude climatic determinism, social and political changes often depend more (once climate or environmental context has started to change) on the societies themselves. Societies are thus responsible, whether positively or negatively, for the effects of climatic change on their future, i.e., on their resources, thus on their resilience vs collapse i.e., on their survival.
Catherine Kuzucuoğlu is an emeritus Directrice de Recherche at the Centre National for Scientific Research (CNRS), France. She is a geomorphologist working in Physical Geography, Geoarchaeology and Quaternary Climate/Environments/Volcanism. She is a member of the Laboratoire de Géographie Physique at Meudon (LGP, UMR 8591 of the CNRS, Paris 1 / U-Pec Universities). After a PhD Thesis (1980) performed in Turkey under the direction of professors R. Coque (Paris 1) and O. Erol (Istanbul University), and with the support of the Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), she has developed several research programs within French-Turkish collaboration projects with MTA, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) and various Turkish Universities. The topics she specialized in are (1) the recent geomorphologic evolution of river terraces, (2) the geomorphological impacts of volcanoes on landscapes and past human societies, and (3) the reconstructions of climate and environment since the LGM and their impacts on past civilizations (using lake and marsh records). Her researches concentrate on central Anatolia, also developing toward Mediterranean Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. She has been the Deputy Director in charge of Archaeology at IFEA in Istanbul (French Institute for Anatolian Studies: 2000-2003) and the Director of the Laboratory of Physical Geography in Meudon, France (2009-2013).
Track 2. Biogeochemistry, Geobiology, Geoecology, Geoagronomy
Track 3. Earthquake Seismology and Geodesy
Cengiz YILDIRIM received his Ph.D. (2008) from the Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences at Istanbul Technical University, Turkey. After his four years Post-Doc in Germany, Dr. Yildirim started to work as Assistant Professor in the same institute where he received his Ph.D. He has expertise in coastal, tectonic geomorphology, active tectonics, and paleoseismology. He is involved in several projects in Turkey, Germany, Balkan Countries, Cyprus, Algeria, Chile, and Antarctica. He has published about 40 papers in the high-ranking (Q1) refereed journals. Prof. Dr. Yildirim received the Outstanding Young Research Award from the Turkish Academy of Sciences and the Georg Foerster Experienced Researcher Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Germany.
From coastal Geomorphology to Earthquake Hazard in the Eastern Mediterranean Region
In his keynote, Professor Yildirim will talk about geomorphological strain markers such as tidal notches, wave-cut platforms, strandlines, and emerged marine terraces, especially on the northern (Turkey, Greece, and Cyprus) and southern (Libya and Egypt) coasts of the Eastern Mediterranean. These regions represent up-riding (Eurasia) and down-riding (Africa) blocks of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa. The coastal geomorphology provides an opportunity for insight into earthquake hazards of both up-and-down riding regions. The mapping, dating, and modeling of these coastal landforms open new realms to understanding regional Earthquake Hazards. Prof. Yildirim will present examples of key areas from the Eastern Mediterranean.
Track 4. Environmental Earth Sciences
Syed E. Hasan, PhD; RG; FGSChair, Environmental Characterization and Remediation Technical Working Group, AEG
Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences
University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA
Syed E. Hasan received his Ph.D. (1978) from Purdue University in Engineering and Environmental Geology and joined UMKC in 1979. His expertise includes waste management, medical geology (geohealth), and geotechnics. He had introduced four new courses in waste management and designed and administered the Graduate certificate in waste management program. He retired after 35 years of teaching and research in the Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, where he also served as Director of the Center for Applied Environmental Research from 1998 to 2014. He has published about 50 papers in refereed journals and has authored a college textbook titled Geology and Hazardous Waste Management (Prentice-Hall, 1996) that received the Claire P. Holdredge Award from the Association of Engineering Geologists (October, 1998) as an “outstanding contribution to Engineering Geology profession”. In June 2002, he received the Educator’s Environmental Excellence Award from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7 as the 1999-2000 Outstanding Environmental Educator in the State of Missouri. In April 2005, the Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University honored him with its Outstanding Alumnus Award. He is an elected fellow of the Geological Society of America (GSA) and a senior member of the Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists (AEG). He is a registered professional geologist in Missouri, and is listed in several major bibliographic publications, such as American Men and Women of Sciences; Who’s Who in Science and Engineering; Men of Achievement; and Top 100 Scientists, International Bibliographical Centre, Cambridge, U.K. He is active in several professional organizations: served as chair, Environmental & Engineering Geology Division (2008-09), and the Geology & Health Division (2010-11) of GSA; and is serving as an Associate Editor for GeoHealth since 2007, and a Member of the Editorial Advisory Board, Environmental and Engineering Geoscience–a joint publication of GSA and AEG. He has been a two-time recipient of the Senior Fulbright Scholar Award from the U.S. Department of State, and taught courses in waste management and environmental science at Qatar University (spring 2016), and the University of Jordan (spring 2020). Besides writing scientific articles he mentors scholars from developing countries and advises them in application of geoinformatics in geotechnical site selection; and offers editorial tips to prepare papers for publication.
In his keynote Professor Hasan will talk about ‘High Level Nuclear Waste Management, Why America Lost the Lead?’. Despite being the first country in the world to run a successful fission experiment, making the first atomic bomb, and taking the lead in finding a safe way to dispose of the high-level nuclear waste (HLNW), the U.S. failed to be the first country in the world to open a deep geological repository for its HLNW. A small country, Finland, that built its first nuclear power plant about 34 years later, has been recognized for being the first country in the world to build a deep geological repository for HNLW disposal. Unlike the U.S.A; which spent over 20 years and $13.5 billion to investigate and approve the Yucca Mountain repository, Finland spent one-fourth less money, and is ready to start emplacement of the HLNW at its Olkilouto repository in 2023. The presentation will review U.S. efforts to build the first atomic bomb, along with its commitment for safe disposal of the HLNW. The politics that led to the delay and suspending the Yucca Mountain project will be discussed in detail.
Track 5. Applied & Theoretical Geophysics
Track 6. Geo-Informatics and Remote Sensing
Track 7. Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Petrology, Volcanology
Track 8. Geological Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering
Track 9. Geomorphology, Geography, Soil Science, Glaciology, Geoarchaeology, Geoheritage
Track 10. Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Hydrochemistry
Track 11. Marine Geosciences, Historical Geology, Paleoceanography, Paleoclimatology
Dorrik Stow FRSEEmeritus Professor Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland
Distinguished Professor China University of Geoscience, Wuhan, China
Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow
VANISHED OCEAN: HOW TETHYS RE-SHAPED THE WORLD
The Tethys Ocean once dominated the Earth. Between 260 and 6Ma (million years ago), its vast waters bore witness to some of the most significant episodes in the history of our planet. Two mass extinctions, the end Permian and end Cretaceous, rocked the world during this time. Global environmental stress and changes in ocean chemistry are implicated in the cause of these events, rather than bolide impact. The warm shallow waters of Tethys then nurtured the ensuing rebirth of new organisms: exuberant Jurassic marine life; the development of sponge reefs, coral reefs, rudistid bioherms, nummulitic shell banks and the myriad fishes that adapted to each new ecosystem; the evolution of feathered birds from Tethys lagoons and cetaceans from the strandline.
Repeated black-shale episodes (180-80Ma) have given the world the majority of its oil resources. The chalk seas that followed saw global sea-level reach its highest known position, with 82% of the world beneath water. Closure of the Tethys led to uplift of the Alpine-Himalayan mountain ranges, and their erosion fed the world’s largest deepwater fans, some of which host important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Ocean circulation patterns changed and so impacted global climate, the resultant changes causing the world to plunge into its current icehouse climatic phase. Final closure of the Tethys reign and disappearance of this former ocean took place around 6Ma, and the remnant Tethys Seaway evaporated to dryness. Opening of the Gibraltar gateway after resulted in the outpouring of warm salty water into the North Atlantic Ocean.
Much of the evidence for this remarkable history of environmental change through the geological past has been derived from detailed and careful geological observations across North Africa and the Middle East, across Europe, central and eastern Asia. More still can be gleaned from drilling into the sedimentary archives beneath the present day oceans. Collectively, we can learn from the former Tethys Ocean, much about our global environment today. What is robust and what precarious? How does life respond to changing stress? How does the ocean-climate nexus affect climate today and in the future? Where are the tipping points towards irreversible change?
Professor Dorrik Stow is a world-renowned sedimentologist, geologist and oceanographer. His first degree was from Cambridge University (UK), followed by a doctorate from Dalhousie University (Canada). He has worked both in the oil and gas industry (Britoil and BP) and in different universities across Europe, North America and China. He is currently an Emeritus Professor of Geoscience at Heriot-Watt University and Distinguished Professor at the China University of Geoscience, Wuhan. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society (Edinburgh), Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow and formerly Director of the Institute of Petroleum Engineering at Heriot Watt.
He is a leading specialist in deepwater sedimentary systems, with 45 years research experience in modern, ancient and subsurface sediments. He has a particular interest in turbidites, contourites, shale-rocks, geo-hazards and deepwater hydrocarbons. His extensive record of scientific publications includes over 300 scientific papers and reports, numerous books and edited volumes. He has carried out scientific expeditions in all the world’s oceans and visited or worked in more than 50 countries. He is also an enthusiastic proponent of popularising science through talks, articles, books and TV/radio broadcasts. His recent books include Encyclopedia of the Oceans, Vanished Ocean, and Oceans: A Very Short Introduction, all with Oxford University Press. A must-have for sedimentologists is his book Sedimentary Rocks in the Field: A Colour Guide, with CRC Press.
Track 12. Numerical and Analytical Methods in Mining Sciences and Geomechanics
Track 13. Petroleum and Energy Engineering, Petroleum Geochemistry
Track 14. Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Paleontology, Geochronology
Track 15. Structural Geology, Tectonics and Geodynamics, Petroleum Geology
A.M. Celâl SengörAssociate Editor, Mediterranean Geosciences Reviews (Springer)
Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Turkey
The Hercynide/Cimmeride/Alpide transitions in the Mediterranean realm: shedding the old prejudices
The frame of the Mediterranean is formed from the products of three major orogenic complexes: Hercynides, Cimmerides and Alpides. The Hercynides are the products of the collision of Laurasia with Gondwana-Land during the medial Carboniferous to the late Permian interval and extend from northern South America via the Huastecan/Marathon/Ouachita/Appalachian/Mauretanian (the ‘Greater Appalachides’ of Stille) to European Hercynian orogenic areas and end somewhere around the Moesian Platform. From the Moesian platform eastwards, the Palaeozoic deformations continue uninterrupted into the Cimmeride deformations, which characterise much of the frame of the Black Sea and continue into Iran, where they are separated from the Scythides by the main Palaeo-Tethyan suture between the Talesh Mountains and Mashhad. The Hercynides and the Cimmerides began evolving along the late Proterozoic to Jurassic Prtogonos continental margin magmatic arc along the northern edge of Gondwana-Land after the termination of the Saharide deformations and the completion of the formation of Gondwana-Land. The Protogonos collided with Laurasia during the late Palaeozoic only in the Americas, Africa and Europe, thus creating the Hercynide orogeny. Its activity continued farther east until the collision of the Cimmerian Continent with Laurasia during the early Jurassic. The Alpide evolution began only during the Cretaceous around the Mediterranean, and its products were superimposed onto the Hercynides in the west and the Cimmerides in the east. That is why it is a fundamental mistake to talk about ‘Hercynian’ (or ‘Variscan’) events east of Bulgaria, although late Palaeozoic orogeny continued into Mesozoic orogeny. Thus the Cimmerides have both Palaeozoic and Mesozoic deformations. Confusing the Hercynide deformations with those of the Cimmerides has given rise to much confusion in the past and even led to some bizarre earth-expansion theories. Calling any old late Palaeozoic orogeny ‘Hercynian’ or ‘Variscan’ is a left-over from Bertrand’s and Stille’s ‘worldwide, simultaneous orogeny interpretation’ conceived within the framework of the thermal contraction theory.
A. M. C. Şengör was born in İstanbul, Turkey, in 1955. He obtained, from the State University of New York at Albany, a BSc in 1978, an MSc in 1979 and a PhD in 1982, all in geology. Since then he has been a professor of geology at the İstanbul Technical University and a former chairman of the History of Geology Division of the Geological Society of America. He is the author, editor, co-author or co-editor of 20 books and more than 320 research papers on diverse aspects of geology. Şengör is a member of the Academia Europaea, the Leopoldina German National Academy of Sciences and a corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and a foreign associate of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and arts. He also received numerous awards and medals for his work on geology, including the Bigsby Medal of the Geological Society of London, the Lutaud Award of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, the Gustav-Steinmann Medal of the Geologische Vereinigung, the Arthur Holmes Medal of the European Geosciences Union and the Eduard Suess Medal of the Austrian Geological Society.